The Evolution Of Knowledge Creation Online: Wikipedia and Knowledge Processes

Title: The Evolution Of Knowledge Creation Online: Wikipedia and Knowledge Processes

Authors: Ruqin Ren (Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California)

Abstract: Using the evolutionary theory framework of the variation, retention, selection process, this paper explains the self-organized knowledge production behaviors online, with Wikipedia as an example. Evolution is presented as a trial-and-error process that produces a progressive accumulation of knowledge. The underlying theoretical assumption is that even though online communities feature very different characteristics than traditional organizations, the basic processes of trial-and-error learning in evolutionary theory still apply to the new forms of organizations. Based on the theory of self-organization system and evolution theory, the processes of variation and selection are explained in depth with examples observed on Wikipedia. The study presents a nested hierarchy of vicarious selectors that plays an important role in online knowledge creation.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Use of GitHub as a Platform for Open Collaboration on Text Documents

Title: Use of GitHub as a Platform for Open Collaboration on Text Documents

Authors: Justin Longo (University of Regina Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, Canada), Tanya M. Kelley (Arizona State University, U.S.A.)

Abstract: Recently, researchers are paying attention to the use of the software development and code-hosting web service GitHub for other collaborative purposes, including a class of activity referred to as document, text, or prose collaboration. These alternative uses of GitHub as a platform for sharing non-code artifacts represent an important modification in the practice of open collaboration. We survey cases where GitHub has been used to facilitate collaboration on non-code outputs, identify its strengths and weaknesses when used in this mode, and propose conditions for successful collaborations on co-created text documents.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Toward efficient source code sharing on the Web

Title: Toward efficient source code sharing on the Web

Authors: Hiroaki Fukuda (Shibura Institute of Technology, Japan)

Abstract: The Web is one of the useful references for developers to find pieces of code that represent what they need nowadays. In addition, we can find websites that contain not only source code but also detailed explanations of the code. In these websites, explanations are usually located above/below code, thereby users, who refer to these explanations, sometimes need to scroll a (browser) window to understand pieces of code reading the corresponding explanations. As a consequence, users have to temporarily memorize code and/or the corresponding expositions, wasting extra time. On the other hand, it is common to use wiki to edit a set of code and corresponding explanations. In most wiki systems, they prepare only one window to edit code and its explanations, therefore editors usually need to scroll the window to complete editing, also consuming extra time. This paper proposes a special wiki system for reading and editing source code referring its explanations, called CodeWiki that provides multiple windows for editors to edit code and explanations. Besides, CodeWiki enables readers to click a link which will lead them to a window that contains corresponding explanations. As a consequence, readers and editors do not need to scroll a window, meaning that CodeWiki can prevent readers/editors from wasting extra time. We propose a prototype implementation of CodeWiki and show its usage.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Social Collaboration Metrics

Title: Social Collaboration Metrics

Author: Manfred Langen (Siemens AG)

Abstract: Social Media in the enterprise is widely introduced, and its benefit in general is not in doubt. But the arguments of better communication and improved networking of employees will not be sufficient in the long term. Today’s metrics on registered users, number of visits or user generated content have to prove a relation to real business impact. Therefore, we at Siemens Corporate Technology developed the ICUP model (Impact, Connectedness, User engagement, Platform adoption) to close the gap between counting registered users and measuring business value.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Govwiki.US: An Open Directory of US Local Governments

Title: Govwiki.US: An Open Directory of US Local Governments

Author: Marc D. Joffe (Public Sector Credit Solutions, USA), Vadim Ivlev (Electronic Archive, Russian Federation)

Abstract: This demonstration describes a new open source and open data website we are planning to interface with Wikipedia.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Participants’ Motivation Factors and Profile In Crowdsourced Law Reform

Title: Participants’ Motivation Factors and Profile In Crowdsourced Law Reform

Authors: Tanja Aitamurto (Stanford University), Hélène Landemore (Yale University)

Abstract: This paper examines participants’ motivation factors and identity in crowdsourced policy-making, in which citizens collaboratively participate in online ideation and knowledge creation for policy reforms. Drawing on data from a crowdsourced law reform in Finland, this paper examines the drivers of the participants and their demographic profile. The findings show that the participants typically are male, educated, full-time working professionals with a strong interest in the off-road traffic issue. The motivations to contribute to crowdsourced policy-making are a mix of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic drivers include the desire to do what is one’s “civic duty,” that is, to participate constructively in a political process, and the desire to deliberate with peers and learn from them. Extrinsic motivations include the desire to have an impact on an issue of importance to participants. The drivers are, in part, similar to those that drive participation in traditional democratic processes like voting, and to those that motivate other volunteer-based large-scale online collaborations, like Wikipedia creation.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Peer-production system or collaborative ontology engineering effort: What is Wikidata?

Title: Peer-production system or collaborative ontology engineering effort: What is Wikidata?

Authors: Claudia Müller-Birn, Benjamin Karran, Janette Lehmann (Freie Universität Berlin), Markus Luczak-Rösch (University of Southampton)

Abstract: Wikidata promises to reduce factual inconsistencies across all Wikipedia language versions. It will enable dynamic data reuse and complex fact queries within the world’s largest knowledge database. Studies of the existing participation patterns that emerge in Wikidata are only just beginning. What delineates most of the contributions in the system has not yet been investigated. Is it an inheritance from the Wikipedia peer-production system or the proximity of tasks in Wikidata that have been studied in collaborative ontology engineering? As a first step to answering this question, we performed a cluster analysis of participants’ content editing activities. This allowed us to blend our results with typical roles found in peer-production and collaborative ontology engineering projects. Our results suggest very specialised contributions from a majority of users. Only a minority, which is the most active group, participate all over the project. These users are particularly responsible for developing the conceptual knowledge of Wikidata. We show the alignment of existing algorithmic participation patterns with these human patterns of participation. In summary, our results suggest that Wikidata rather supports peer-production activities caused by its current focus on data collection. We hope that our study informs future analyses and developments and, as a result, allows us to build better tools to support contributors in peer-production-based ontology engineering.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Contribution, Social Networking, and the Request for Adminship Process in Wikipedia

Title: Contribution, Social networking, and the Request for Adminship process in Wikipedia

Authors: Romain Picot-Clémente, Cécile Bothorel (UMR CNRS 6285 Lab-STICC),
Nicolas Jullien (ICI-M@rsouin)

Abstract: Epistemic communities are said to be project-oriented communities of experts, evaluated on their contribution in terms of knowledge, where the main criterion for promotion is knowledge production. However, for Wikipedia, for open source, have argued that taking responsibility is an additional step from being a regular contributor, and social interactions with peers may be an additional requirement for being promoted. This work addresses this discussion by looking at the electing process of the administrators (admin) in the English Wikipedia, where exists a quite competitive process of election for the managing position called “administrator”, where social connections and knowledge production skills seem to matter. From 2006-01-01 to 2007-10-01, which is our period of study, there were 1,617 RfA, with a 49.2% rate of success).

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Wikipedia in the World of Global Gender Inequality Indices: What The Biography Gender Gap Is Measuring

Title: Wikipedia in the World of Global Gender Inequality Indices: What The Biography Gender Gap Is Measuring

Authors: Max Klein

Abstract: While Wikipedia’s editor gender gap is important but difficult to measure, its biographical gender gap can more readily be measured. We correlate a Wikipedia-derived gender inequality indicator (WIGI), with four widespread gender inequality indices in use today (GDI, GEI, GGGI, and SIGI). Analysing their methodologies and correlations to Wikipedia, we find evidence that Wikipedia’s bias in biographical coverage is related to the gender bias in positions of social power.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.

Tool-Mediated Coordination of Virtual Teams in Complex Systems

Title: Tool-Mediated Coordination of Virtual Teams in Complex Systems

Authors: Michael Gilbert, Mark Zachry (Human Centered Design & Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA USA)

Abstract: Support for coordination in online spaces, specifically in peer production systems, has frequently been an after-thought. In the absence of such support, the users of such systems must work to find an emergent order that drives shared project goals and leads to equitable processes. In short, they must rely on the “wisdom of the crowds.” As our study demonstrates, however, the reality is that often the system tools available for coordination, evaluation, and work articulation are not suitable to the task at hand. Our study, first, takes a theoretical approach to understanding how tool-mediated coordination functions within peer production systems. Secondly, we enumerate the methods available to identify automated and semi-automated tools that function within such systems by quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing trace interactions and their utility in Wikipedia over a year-long period. Finally, we identify potential vacuums where new design interventions have the greatest potential for enhancing peer-production systems.

This contribution to OpenSym 2015 will be made available as part of the OpenSym 2015 proceedings (or companion) on or after August 19, 2015.